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Infertility in men — causes, diagnosis, treatment

In more than 40% of the cases, the cause of infertility in the couples coming to the Life Line care center is the male factor

Infertility in man in detail

According to the statistics, 17% of couples in Russia cannot conceive a child. In more than 40% of the cases the cause of infertility in the couples coming the Life Line care center is the male factor (sometimes problems are combined in both parts). Scientific progress of andrology and reproductive medicine allows to experience the joy of fatherhood even to the men suffering from the most severe infertility disorders. However, it is important to determine the root of the problem so that a treatment plan can be developed. That is why the way towards the happy parenthood starts with a diagnosis of infertility.  

When to seek medical help? If the partners has been sexually active for 12 months without occurrence of pregnancy. When the woman is older than 35 this term is reduced down to 6 months.

Where can a man undergo diagnosis of infertility in Moscow?

In order to overcome infertility problem specialists have to first identify what they are faced with. Medical examination in Life Line care center provides insight into the core of the problem and clarifies whether it lies in the man’s health condition.

  • In our reproductive care center, diagnostic procedures of infertility in men are conducted in accordance with international clinical standards. We are among the first in Russia to adopt innovative diagnostic methods. 
  • Life Line clinics are well-equipped. Invasive and non-invasive diagnostic methods are performed using the newest technologies. Spermogram and other medical tests can be undergone in our in-house laboratory. Reliability and operational efficiency of tests are guaranteed. 
  • Diagnosis and treatment of infertility in men are performed by leading Moscow andrologists and urologists. All of them are Medical Science Candidates and possess immense practical experience. They closely collaborate with specialty physicians in other fields. 

Once the reason for infertility is identified, specialists develop an individual treatment plan. An effective method can be found for any case.  

Factors that cause infertility in men

Will the therapy be pharmacological, surgical or conducted via an ART program? It depends on the issue that impairs pregnancy. Listed below are the common forms of infertility in men: 

  • The secretory form is an impairment in gamete production of the testis. It can be caused by varicocele cryptorchidism, hydrocele, an infection or inguinal hernia.
  • The obstructive form is obstruction of deferent canals. It can be caused by a tumor or a cyst in a scrotum, present scar tissue after trauma or by an inflammation process.
  • The immunological form is an antibody response to the man’s own sperm. As a result, male gametes die and the man cannot conceive. 
  • The endocrine form is a hormonal imbalance that is caused by genital and thyroid gland malfunction.  


Do these disorders ‘declare’ themselves via any symptoms? There are some indirect signs but for reliable male infertility diagnosis, the man should undergo a medical examination.   

What does the diagnosis of male infertility start with?

In our center infertility in man is diagnosed and treated by a specialist in andrology and urology. When a couple applies to the Life Line care center because of an infertility issue the first test they are asked to undergo is a sperm test. 

Spermogram is the main method for determining the reason for male infertility. If the ejaculate examination shows spermatogenesis impairment, andrologist refers the patient for a set of extra medical tests.

In Life Line Reproductive care center spermogram, as well as all the other tests, is conducted in our in-house laboratory. Once the biomaterial is harvested, it is transmitted to highly-qualified embryologists for further analysis. Results are to be ready in a few hours. 

Besides, during their initial consultation session, a father-to-be is physically examined and interviewed by a doctor for a further anamnesis study. Smear samples for infection test are also taken straight away. 

Diagnosis methods of male infertility

All the diagnostic methods proved to be precise are available for the patients of our reproductive care center. A set of diagnostic tests and examination sessions is individualized and based on the results of the interview, spermogram test and health history of the patient. 

For instance, at the suspected case of endocrine factor involved, a specialist in urology and andrology refers the patient for a hormone blood test. To clarify the causes of spermatogenesis impairment, additional ejaculate tests are undertaken (MAR-test and the like). In settings where there are grounds for suspected genetic abnormalities, a father-to-be is referred for a genetic consultation. In some cases, microsurgical operations on testis are inevitable. They are performed in our clinics as well.  

Our methods and technologies for infertility diagnosis

  • Consulting with a specialist in urology and andrology alongside with other specialists. If the situation so requires, geneticist, embryologist, and therapist are involved in the diagnostic process. 
  • Laboratory diagnostics. Which medical tests are needed for diagnosis of male infertility 
  • Spermogram, PCR-based diagnostics, blood tests (general, biochemical, hormone blood test, infection blood test, test for genetic study, etc.), MAR-test, Electron Microscopic Study, study of sperm DNA fragmentation. 
  • Non-invasive diagnosis. Ultrasound examination of scrotum organs. 
  • Surgical methods. Testicular biopsy via TESA, TESE, micro-TESE and the like. 

In the vast majority of cases, Life Line specialists manage to identify the abnormality that causes the infertility issue. So-called unexplained infertility (when no cause is detected) happens in 1-2% of cases at most. After that, fathers-to-be are referred for medical or surgical treatment, depending on the infertility factor.  

If the cause of the infertility issue cannot be detected or treated, a couple is recommended to try an ART procedure. On rare occasions, intrauterine insemination (IUI) can be enough for the pregnancy to happen. Other patients are recommended to undergo IVF with ICSI or PICSI.

These programs provide high chances for pregnancy even in cases of a low-quality sperm in a partner. At severe forms of spermatogenesis impairment, sperm for in vitro fertilization procedure is harvested via testicular biopsy.

Visit our specialists to determine and come through the cause that blocks your route to happy fatherhood. In order to make an appointment call us, submit our online application form or write to us in online-chat.

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